The Haversine formula is a formula used to calculate the distance between two points on a sphere given their longitude and latitude coordinates. In simpler terms, it calculates the shortest distance between two points on the surface of a spherical object, like Earth.

This formula is used in various fields such as astronomy, geodesy, and navigation.In real-world use cases, the Haversine formula is used to calculate flight routes, map distances, and marine navigation. It is also used in meteorology for computing storm tracks, for positioning of telecommunications assets, and for plotting the path of satellites across the sky. The formula is also used in GPS navigation to determine the most efficient routes for drivers.