Georeferencing is the process of assigning real-world coordinates to a digital image or map. In other words, it is the process of aligning an image or map with a specific location on the Earth's surface.

This is done by identifying known points on the image or map and matching them with their corresponding locations in the real world. This allows the image or map to be accurately positioned and used for analysis, mapping, and other purposes.

Here are some examples of when georeferencing may be used:

  1. Satellite imagery: Georeferencing is used to assign coordinates to satellite imagery to allow it to be accurately positioned on a map. This allows for the identification of features such as land use, vegetation, and water bodies.
  2. Historical maps: Old maps that do not have a coordinate system can be georeferenced to allow them to be accurately positioned on a modern map. This allows for comparisons to be made between the past and present landscape.
  3. Aerial photography: Aerial photographs can be georeferenced to create accurate maps of the terrain, which can be used for planning, analysis, and other purposes.
  4. Archaeology: Georeferencing is used to create accurate maps of archaeological sites, which can be used for analysis and interpretation.
  5. Urban planning: Georeferenced maps can be used in urban planning to identify land use patterns, transportation networks, and other features.

Overall, georeferencing plays an essential role in allowing digital images and maps to be accurately positioned on the Earth's surface, which is necessary for a wide range of applications in many fields.